DenpaNews So far, the government has continued to pursue a vaccination program so that it is spread evenly to reduce the rate of COVID-19 in World Wide. also launched a COVID-19 booster vaccine program for health workers. How is the booster vaccine different from the regular vaccine? Does the general public also need the booster dose? Is Effect to skin ?
What is a COVID-19 booster vaccine?
The COVID-19 booster vaccine is the third vaccination dose that aims to strengthen the vaccine dose that has been given previously.
Not only for COVID-19, this booster is widely given in vaccinations for several types of diseases , such as flu and tetanus.
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In some types of vaccination, giving small doses in several times is considered more effective than giving large doses at one time. This approach is expected to strengthen the body’s immune system in a sustainable manner.
Although most booster vaccines have the same content as the previous vaccine dose, some are modified in such a way as to improve their performance.
Depending on the type of vaccine, some people may need to get a booster several weeks, months, or years after getting their first vaccination.
Ali Ellebedy , an immunologist from Washington University, explained how the booster vaccine works in strengthening the previous vaccine dose.you can read Top Tips Effective Your Healthy for prevent covid19
When a person receives the first dose of vaccination, the body’s immune system will produce a number of antibodies which will gradually decrease in levels.
However, this decrease will still leave a “memory” in the cells that produce antibodies, especially in B cells.
If a booster vaccine is injected, the cells will multiply and again increase the antibody levels in the body.
Over time, the number of antibodies may decrease again, but the “memory” of the B cells will be greater than before.
This memory helps the body’s immune system to react and fight the COVID-19 virus faster and stronger.
In addition, the booster vaccine also plays a role in the affinity maturation process, which is the process in which B cells that have been exposed to the vaccine will move to the lymph nodes.
In the lymph nodes, these cells will mutate and produce antibodies that are much stronger to fight the virus.
Several studies of certain types of COVID-19 vaccination have supported this theory. The vaccines being tested as boosters are Moderna, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinovac.
All four showed a slight increase in the number of infection-neutralizing antibodies in the body when injected several months after the second dose.
Side effects of COVID-19 booster vaccine according to study
A recent study from the CDC reveals what side effects arise from the COVID-19 booster vaccine. Broadly speaking, the effects that appear are not much different from the side effects of the second dose of vaccine.
The study examined data from 22,191 booster vaccine recipients. Of all recipients, about 32% reported side effects, and 28% of them were unable to carry out normal activities on the day of vaccination.
The CDC summarizes the side effects of booster vaccines below.
- Pain at the injection site is felt 71%
- Fatigue about 56%
- Headaches about 43.4%
- About 2% require medical treatment
- A total of 13 people were hospitalized
Overall, the third dose or booster vaccine is considered safe. Most people experience side effects that are tolerable.
Should we get a COVID-19 booster vaccine?
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Several countries that have implemented COVID-19 vaccination programs for the majority of their population are starting to consider giving this booster vaccine. However, experts are still debating whether or not to give a booster to people who have received 2 doses of vaccination.
A decrease in vaccine antibodies over time after the body has received the second dose is perfectly normal. This also applies to the COVID-19 vaccination. However, what experts do not agree on is the effect of the decrease in antibodies after the vaccine on self-protection from COVID-19 infection.
To ascertain whether the vaccine is still effective in protecting the body, more definite indicators are needed regarding the limit for lowering antibody levels or other markers of the body’s immune system.
By knowing these indicators, experts can determine whether or not we need to get aa booster vaccination at this time.
There are also some experts who think that giving booster vaccines will be more beneficial for people with certain medical conditions, such as organ transplant recipients or people with autoimmune diseases.
However, this certainly still requires further research to know whether the third dose of vaccination is safe for these at-risk groups.
According to WHO, instead of giving booster vaccines, the main focus that needs to be paid attention to is ensuring that vaccinations are evenly distributed to all levels of society, especially those who have not been vaccinated at all.
This is in line with the statement from the Spokesperson for the COVID-19 Vaccination of the Ministry of Health as well as the Director of Prevention and Control of Directly Infectious Diseases, dr. Siti Nadia Tarmizi.
In Indonesia itself, the COVID-19 booster program will be implemented using the Moderna vaccine or mRNA-1273.
Previously, through direct interviews, dr. Nadia emphasized that the current booster vaccine is only for health workers. This is because the government targets that all people get 2 doses of the vaccine first and this is also considered with the availability of the vaccine.
However, as of January 10, 2022, BPOM again inaugurated the list of booster vaccines, such as CoronaVac or COVID-19 Vaccine Bio Farma, Comirnaty by Pfizer, AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria and Kconecavac), Moderna, and Zifivax.
“The approval of the booster is based on immunogenicity data from observations of the latest clinical trials which showed a significant decrease in antibody levels occurred after 6 months of primary vaccine administration,” said the Head of the POM, Penny K. Lukito at the COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Press Conference.
Studies on the safety and efficacy of this booster vaccine have been carried out since November 2021. Initially, all of these vaccines had obtained EUA as a primary vaccine, then re-evaluated as a follow-up vaccine based on data from the latest supporting clinical trials.
In addition to the addition of vaccine types, the Indonesian government has also decided that further vaccines may be given to:
- vulnerable groups of people, and
- people who had received the second dose of vaccine more than 6 months earlier.
This advanced vaccine can be obtained for free starting in January 2022 through the BPJS Health Contribution Assistance Recipient (PBI) scheme with a quota of 100 million people. While the other 121 million will be charged independently or not free. Vaccinated to prevent hit by omicron